THE GUIDELINES FOR JAPAN-U.S. DEFENSE COOPERATION (November 27, 1978)
These draft guidelines shall not be construed as affecting the rights and obligations of Japan and the United States under the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and its related arrangements. It is understood that the extension of facilitative assistance and support by Japan to the United States, which is described in the draft guidelines, is subject to the relevant laws and regulations of Japan.
Ⅰ. Posture for Deterring Aggression
- 1．Japan, as its defense policy, will possess defense capability on an appropriate scale with in the scope necessary for self-defense, and consolidate and maintain a posture to ensure the most efficient operations； and assure, in accordance with the SOFA, the stable and effective utilization of facilities and areas in Japan by U.S. Forces. The United States will maintain a nuclear deterrent capability and the forward deployments of combat-ready forces and other forces capable of reinforcing them.
- 2．In order to be able to take coordinated joint action smoothly in the event of an armed attack against Japan, Japan and the United States will endeavor to achieve a posture for cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. Forces in such areas as operations, intelligence and logistics.
- (1) In order jointly to conduct coordinated operations for the defense of Japan smoothly and effectively, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will conduct studies on joint defense planning. They will also undertake necessary joint exercises and training when appropriate. in addition, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will study and prepare beforehand common procedures deemed necessary for operational needs in order jointly to undertake operations smoothly. Such procedures include matters related to operations, intelligence and logistics. As communications/electronics are absolutely essential to effecting command and liaison, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will also determine in advance their mutual communications/electronics requirements.
- (2) The JSDF and U.S. Forces will develop and exchange intelligence necessary for the defense of Japan. The JSDF and U.S. Forces will, in order to ensure smooth intelligence exchange, determine in coordination the nature of the intelligence to be exchanged and the specific JSDF/USF units to be assigned responsibility for the exchange. In addition, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will promote close intelligence cooperation by taking such required actions as establishing systems for mutual communications.
- (3) The JSDF and U.S. Forces, acting from the basic principle that each nation is responsible for the logistics of its own forces, will closely coordinate with each other or conduct studies in advance in regard to such functions as supply, transportation, maintenance, facilities, etc., so that mutual support can be arranged appropriately when needed. Detailed requirements for this mutual support will be developed through joint studies and planning in particular, coordination will be made in advance in regard to foreseeable supply deficiencies, quantities, priorities for satisfying deficiencies, emergency acquisition procedures, etc., and studies will be undertaken relating to the economical and efficient utilization of the bases and facilities of the two forces.
Ⅱ．Actions in Response to an Armed Attack Against Japan
1．When an armed attack against Japan is imminent;
Japan and the United States will conduct closer liaison and will take necessary measures respectively and, as deemed necessary due to changes in the situation, will make necessary preparations in order to ensure coordinated joint action, including the establishment of a coordination center between the JSDF and U.S. Forces.
The JSDF and U.S. Forces will establish in advance a common standard as regards preparations which will be respectively conducted by the two forces so that the two nations may select coordinated common readiness stages, and ensure that effective preparations for operations can be cooperatively undertaken by the JSDF and U.S. Forces respectively.
This common standard will indicate readiness stages from an increase of unit alert posture to a maximization of combat readiness posture concerning intelligence activities, unit readiness, movements, logistics, and other matters relating to defense preparations.
The JSDF and U.S. Forces will respectively conduct defense preparations considered necessary according to the readiness stage selected by mutual agreement between the two governments.
2. When an armed attack against Japan takes place:
- (1) In principle, Japan by itself will repel limited, small-scale aggression. When it is difficult to repel aggression alone due to the scale, type and other factors of aggression, Japan will repel it with the cooperation of the United States.
- (2) When the JSDF and U.S. Forces jointly conduct operations for the defense of Japan, they will strive to achieve close mutual coordination to employ the defense capacity of each force in a timely and effective manner.
- (ⅰ) Concept of Operations:
The JSDF will primarily conduct defensive operations in Japanese territory and its surrounding waters and airspace. U.S. Forces will support JSDF operations. U.S. Forces will also conduct operations to supplement functional areas which exceed the capacity of the JSDF.
The JSDF and U.S. Forces will jointly conduct ground, maritime and air operations as follows:
- (a) Ground Operations:
The Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) and U.S. Ground Forces will jointly conduct g round operations for the defense of Japan. The GSDF will conduct checking, holding and repelling operations.
U.S. Ground Forces will deploy as necessary and jointly conduct operations with the GSDF, mainly those for repelling enemy forces.
- (b) Maritime Operations:
The Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) and U.S. Navy will jointly conduct maritime operations for the defense of surrounding waters and the protection of sea lines of communication.
The MSDF will primarily conduct operations for the protection of major ports and straits in Japan; and anti-submarine operations, operations for the protection of ships and other operations in the surrounding waters.
U.S. Naval Forces will support MSDF operations and conduct operations, including those which may involve the use of task forces providing additional mobility and strike power, with the objective of repelling enemy forces.
- (c) Air Operations:
The Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) and U.S. Air Force will jointly conduct air operations for the defense of Japan.
The ASDF will conduct air-defense, anti-airborne and anti-amphibious invasion, close air support, air reconnaissance, airlift operations, etc.
U.S. Air Force will support ASDF operations and conduct operations, including those which may involve the use of air units providing additional strike power, with the objective of repelling enemy forces.
- (d) When carrying out ground, maritime, and air operations, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will provide necessary support for each other’s forces in various activities related to operations, such as intelligence, Logistics, etc.
- (ⅱ) Command and Coordination:
The JSDF and U.S. Forces, in close cooperation, will take action through their respective command-and-control channels. In order to be able jointly to conduct coordinated operations effectively, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will take action in accordance with operational processes which will be coordinated in advance.
- (ⅲ) Coordination Center:
In order jointly to conduct effective operations, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will maintain close mutual coordination on operations, intelligence and logistic support through a coordination center.
- (ⅳ) Intelligence Activities:
The JSDF and U.S. Forces will, through operations of their respective intelligence systems, conduct intelligence activities in close cooperation in order to contribute to the joint implementation of effective operations. To support this, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will coordinate intelligence activities closely at each stage of requirements, collection, production, and dissemination. The JSDF and U.S. Forces will each have responsibility for their security.
- (ⅴ) Logistic Activities:
The JSDF and U.S. Forces will conduct efficient and appropriate logistic support activities in close cooperation in accordance with relevant agreements between Japan and the United States.
Toward this end, Japan and the United States will undertake mutual support activities to improve the effectiveness of logistic functions and to alleviate functional shortfalls as follows:
- (a) Supply
The United States will support the acquisition of supplies for systems of U.S. origin while Japan will support acquisition of supplies in Japan.
- (b) Transportation
Japan and the United States will, in close cooperation, carry out transportation operations, including airlift and sealift of supplies from the United States to Japan.
- (c) Maintenance
The United States will support the maintenance of items of U.S. origin, which are beyond Japanese maintenance capabilities. and Japan will support the maintenance of U.S. Forces’ equipment in Japan. Maintenance support will include the technical training of maintenance personnel as required. As a related activity, Japan will also support U.S. Forces requirement for salvage and recovery in Japan.
- (d) Facilities
The U.S. Forces will, in case of need, be provided additional facilities and areas in accordance with the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and its related arrangements. If it becomes necessary to consider joint use of bases and facilities/are as to improve effective and economical utilization, the JSDF and U.S. Forces will conduct joint use in accordance with the above Treaty and arrangements.
Ⅲ. Japan-U.S. cooperation in the case of situations in the Far East outside of Japan which will have an important influence on the security of Japan
The Governments of Japan and the United States will consult together from time to whenever changes in the circumstances so require.
The scope and modalities of facilitative assistance to be extended by Japan to the U.S. Forces in the case of situations in the Far East outside of Japan which will have an important influence’ on the security of Japan will be governed by the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, its related arrangements, other relevant agreements between Japan and the United States, and the relevant laws and regulations of Japan.
The Governments of Japan and the United States will conduct studies in advance on the scope and modalities of facilitative assistance to be extended to the U.S. Forces by Japan with in the above-mentioned legal framework. Such studies will include the scope and modalities of joint use of the Self-Defense Forces bases by the U.S. Forces and of other facilitative assistance to be extended.